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This dictionary was compiled by Douglas Dahl, who generously allowed us to include it on our website.  It certainly is an excellent compilation of terminologies.  Doug is currently the CFO for the Associated Koi Clubs of America and has held numerous other positions on the AKCA board over the years.  His expertise in Nishikigoi is extensive: he’s been in the hobby over 17 years; became a certified AKCA judge in 1995 and a ZNA judge in 1997.  Doug has contributed many times to KOIUSA magazine and has given lectures all over the U.S.  His Male Champion and Young Champion Koi awards were won with Koi he personally bred.   Thank you, Doug, for allowing us to share this dictionary with other enthusiasts!

 
7/26/2002   by Douglas Dahl

JAPANESE TO ENGLISH

 

Koi Term                                      (hyphenated to show pronunciation)                              (bold shows pitch accent)

Meaning

 

 

In Japanese, 'a' is like in father, 'i' is like in machine, 'e' is line in pet, 'u' is like 'oo' in hook and 'o' is like in horse

 

 

 

 

a-go     su-mi

black on the gill plate

 

ai

blue

 

Ai     Go-ro-mo

Goromo with indigo blue netting

 

a-ka

red; red base color as in Aka Bekko; very large red marking as in Aka Sanke

 

A-ka    Ha-ji-ro

red koi with white pectoral fin, caudal fin and tail fin tips

 

A-ka    Mu-ji

solid red koi

 

A-ka    San-ke

Sanke with top of body completely red with black spots

 

a-ka-mi

eye with red iris seen in Ki-goi

 

a-ke-bi

light blue

 

a-ra-goi   or      a-ra-go-ke

Doitsu with jumbled scales not in rows

 

A-sa-gi

oldest variety koi with blue netting of scales on back and red on sides and belly

 

a-to     su-mi

black spots appearing as a koi grows larger

 

Be-kko

white base color with shiny black spot pattern; comes from Sanke breeding

 

be-ni

red

 

Be-ni     goi

red koi deeper red than Aka Muji

 

Be-ta     Gin      Rin

the whole surface of the scale sparkles; considered the best Gin Rin

 

Bo-ke      Sho-wa

Showa with unfinished black pattern that appears as gray netting

 

Bo-ke      Su-mi

blurred or faded black

 

bon-gir-i

a koi with no red pattern in the tail region

 

bo-zu

"a priest"; a Kohaku with no red on the head (bald head)

 

BU

"size"; in Japan 5 cm increments in show size groups from 20BU to 90BU

 

Bu-do      San-ke

Goromo with a grape cluster netting

 

bun-ka

Sanke with metallic pectoral fins

 

Cha-goi

brown koi; may have light black netting; "tea"="o-cha"

 

cho-man

stomach tumor

 

Da-ga-ra

see danmoyo

 

Dai-ya

see Hiroshima Gin Rin

 

dan-mo-yo

Kohaku with stepping stone pattern

 

Di-an-i-chi

a modern Kohaku bloodline and breeder of many varieties

 

Doit-su

originated in Germany; Leather carp have no scales, Mirror carp have scales only along lateral lines and/or dorsal fin

 

Doit-su      mat-su-ba

Doitsu scaled matsuba where the black is in the center of the Doitsu scales on the spine only

 

Doro        i-ki

mud pond to grow koi

 

doro-goi

mud black colored koi

 

En-yu

Doitsu cross between Midorigoi and Shusui

 

era

gill

 

Fu-ji

Kohaku or Sanke with silver speckles on the head when young

 

fu-ku-rin

on high quality koi where the inside or upper skin grows out from under a scale to create a thick luster around the scale

 

Gin       Ka-bu-to

black koi with silver edges on each scale

 

Gin       Ma-tsu-ba

Silver Hikari Muji with black pinecone pattern

 

Gin       Rin

see Kin Gin Rin

 

Gin      Shi-ro      Ut-su-ri

Metallic Utsuri shown in Hikari Utsuri

 

Gin      Su-i

silver metallic Shusui; shown in Hikari Moyo

 

Gin-bo

black koi with a silver sheen

 

go-dan

5 step red pattern

 

goi

see koi

 

go-ke

fish scale

 

Go-ro-mo

white base koi with red pattern and blue or black netting only on the red pattern

 

Go-san-ke

traditional term for the most revered varieties Kohaku, Sanke and Showa

 

Go-shi-ki

white base koi with 5 colors with red pattern and blue, dark blue and black net pattern on red and white

 

go-ten      za-ku-ra

Kohaku with Konoko red pattern

 

ha-chi

head

 

ha-chi-bi

see menkaburi

 

ha-chi-wa-re

V shaped black mark behind the head on a Showa

 

ha-da

skin

 

Ha-ge-sh-ir-o

black koi with white tips on pectoral and caudal fins and head and nose

 

Ha-go-ro-mo

"angels wings" refers to the pectoral fins of an Ai Goromo

 

Ha-ji-ro

black koi with white tips on pectoral and caudal fins

 

Ha-ku-shu

cross between Midorigoi and Platinum Ogon making green lateral line scales on a platinum body

 

Ha-na      Shu-su-i

a flowery patterned Shusui where the red extends down from the Doitsu scales below the lateral line; a white line separates the red at the lateral line

 

ha-na-tsu-ki

when the red head pattern of a Kohaku extends to the mouth; not appreciated

 

ha-ra        hi

red on the stomach of Kohaku

 

ha-ra-shi-ta

sagging abdomen or stomach

 

Ha-ri-wa-ke

Hikari Moyo with gold and silver patterns and no black

 

ha-tsu-hi

"first rising sun of the New Year"; pinkish white

 

He-sei Ni-shi-ki

Doitsu version of Yamato Nishiki (metallic Sanke) shown in Hikari Moyo class;  named after current Emporer

 

hi

red; red base color as in Hi Utsuri

 

Hi        jo-wa

o-moyo red pattern from had to tail on Showa

 

Hi        Shu-su-i

same as Hana Shusui without the white line at the lateral line

 

Hi        U-tsu-ri

Utsuri with red body

 

hi   ban

largest red spot

 

Hi-ka-ri

metallic shine skin

 

Hi-ka-ri     Mo-yo     Mo-no

2 metallic colors; may also have black pattern

 

Hi-ka-ri     Mu-ji       Mo-no

1 metallic color

 

Hi-ka-ri     U-tsu-ri    Mo-no

Metallic koi with Showa and Utsuri patterns and bloodline

 

hi-no-ma-ru

red disc as featured in the Japanese flag; describing Tancho

 

hi-re

fin

 

Hi-ro-shi-ma     Gin      Rin

also called "diamond Gin Rin"; brushed reflective build up on top of scales in rows like brushed aluminum

 

hoo          a-ka

red gill plates ancestor of Kohaku

 

Hoo-ka-zu-ki

black koi with red cheeks ancestor of Kohaku

 

ho-shi

star like shape of red pigment stretched as koi grows which fills in to solid red later

 

ho-tsu-ji-ro

four white areas on a black koi

 

i-chi

1; as in ichiban #1

 

i-chi-ban

first or best one

 

i-chi-ma-tsu        mo-yo

checkerboard black pattern preferred on Showa

 

i-ke

pond

 

i-ke     age

act of draining mud ponds to collect koi

 

I-na-zu-ma

lightning or zig zag red pattern on Gosanke

 

ip-pon

continuous red pattern from head to tail on Kohaku

 

i-ro

color

 

i-ro         age

improving the color using food

 

i-shi-ga-ki

see aragoi

 

i-shu-gru-del

deep body of doitsu or German scale carp

 

ji-ha-da

texture of the skin

 

ka-bu-to

see men-kaburi

 

Ka-do

edge

 

ka-ga-mi-goi

Doitsu koi with mirror scales on the dorsal and lateral lines on sides

 

Ka-ge

shadow or phantom

 

Ka-ge       Sho-wa

Showa with Asagi netting pattern on the back; shown in Kawarimono

 

ka-mi-so-ri

straight line kiwa across a scale

 

Ka-no-ko

"fawn" or cherry blossom red pattern

 

ka-o

face

 

Ka-ra-su-goi

"crow fish" ; black koi with white or orange bellies

 

ka-san-e      zu-mi  (sumi)

black pattern on top of red pattern in Sanke

 

ka-ta        mo-yo

pattern only on one side of the body

 

ka-ta        zu-mi  (sumi)

sumi mark preferred on shoulder of Showa

 

Ka-wa-goi

Doitsu koi with only mirror scales on the dorsal line

 

Ka-wa-ri-mo-no

all other varieties of koi except those varieties listed in the show

 

ki

yellow

 

Ki      Shu-su-i

Shusui with yellow replacing the red pattern

 

Ki      U-tsu-ri

Utsuri with yellow body

 

Ki-ko-ku-ryu

cross bred Kumonryu and Hariwake making a metallic Kumonryu with additional red markings

 

Ki-ku-su-i

"chrysanthemum with water"; doitsu Hariwake with cloud like red pattern on sides

 

Kin       Gin        Rin

"gold and silver" scales; shiny reflecting build up on top of scales in rows

 

Kin       Ka-bu-to

black koi with gold edges on each scale

 

Kin       Ki        U-tsu-ri

Metallic Utsuri with yellow pattern on black shown in Hikari Utsuri

 

Kin      Ma-tsu-ba

Gold Hikari Muji with black pinecone pattern

 

Kin      Sho-wa

Metallic Showa shown in Hikari Utsuri

 

Kin      Su-i

gold metallic Shusui: shown in Hikari Moyo; have greater number of red markings than Gin Sui

 

Kin-bo

black koi with a gold sheen

 

Kin-dai      Sho-wa

Modern Showa with a lot of white pattern and less black and red

 

Kin-za-ku-ra

metallic Goten-zakura

 

ki-wa

back edge of red or black color pattern; kamisori kiwa is a straight red edge across scales; maruzome kiwa is where the red pattern pulls back to cover only full scales

 

ko       mo-yo

small red pattern on Kohaku

 

ko-be-su-ki

thin red color

 

koi

bred, fancy carp in beautiful colors; see carp

 

ko-ke-su-ki

single white scale in color spot

 

Ko-njo        A-sa-gi

very dark blue bloodline of Asagi

 

Ko-ro-mo

see Goromo

 

Ko-ro-mo         San-ke

Ai Goromo with additional Sanke black spots

 

Ko-ro-mo         Sho-wa

Ai Goromo with additional Showa black pattern

 

Ko-shi-ki

a cross of Sanke and Ogon

 

ku-chi

mouth

 

ku-chi          be-ne

red lipstick mark on mouth

 

ku-chi         zu-mi

black lips or mouth

 

Ku-ja-ku

Hikari Moyo with black netting

 

Ku-mon-ryu

"dragon with 9 markings"; Doitsu white and black killer whale pattern; changeable color with water temperature; shown in Kawarimono

 

ku-ro

black spot on the head like that of a Tancho; shown in Kawarimono class

 

ku-tsu-be-ra

traditional horseshoe pattern on head of Kohaku

 

Ma-goi

common carp

 

ma-ki-ba-ra

red pattern wrapping around the stomach; negative judging point

 

ma-ki-ga-fu-kai

deep wrapping red pattern on Kohaku

 

ma-ki-ko-mi

red pattern covered below lateral line

 

ma-ru

round

 

ma-ru          zo-me

kiwa at the edge of full scales to formed scalloped edge; good judging point

 

Ma-ru-ten

Gosanke with Tancho on head in addition to other pattern

 

Ma-tsu-ba

red, yellow or white koi with pine cone pattern in black; shown in Kawarimono if not metallic

 

Ma-tsu-ka-wa         ba-ke

black and white koi that changes with water temperature; usually ghost appearance; may have white scales with black center

 

Ma-tsu-no-su-ke

one of the best bloodlines in Sanke known for large size

 

me

eye

 

men-ka-bu-ri

red head or face pattern; thought to be crass or non elegant and negative judging point

 

men-wa-re

black lightening mark across the face of a Showa

 

Mi-do-ri        goi

green colored koi

 

mi-zu

water

 

Mi-zu         A-sa-gi

rare, lightest bloodline of Asagi

 

mo-nyo

figured or shaped

 

mo-to         a-ka

red pattern at the base of pectoral fin in Gosanke; needs to add balance if positive judging point

 

mo-to         gu-ro

black pattern at base of pectoral fins on Showa, Utsuri or Hikari Utsuri

 

mo-to         zu-mi

see moto goro

 

mo-yo

pattern

 

mu-da-go-ke

large Doitsu scale out of place

 

mu-ra-ski

purple color

 

na-be         su-mi

unstable, flat black color pattern

 

Napoleon

sub variety of Kohaku with head pattern resembling Napoleon’s hat

 

Na-ru-mi       A-sa-gi

most common, lighter bloodline of Asagi with dark blue scales rimmed in lighter blue; named after a town in Japan where cloth of this color is produced

 

Ne-zu          O-gon

"mouse"; silver gray Ogon

 

ni

two

 

ni-ba-ni       (niban hi)

changeable red secondary pattern

 

ni-dan

2 step red pattern

 

Ni-i-ga-ta

location in  Japan thought to be the birthplace of koi

 

Ni-I-ga-ta        Gin         Rin

see Tama Gin Rin

 

Nip-pon            Hi

see o-moyo

 

Ni-shi-ki-goi

Nishiki means "many brocade colors", goi mean fish; see koi

 

no-se        zu-mi (sumi)

black markings on top of red pattern on Sanke

 

o-bi-re

tail fin

 

O-chi-ba        Shi-gu-re

"autumn leaves on water"; blue gray with a brown pattern; shown in kawarimono

 

o-do-me

see tail stop

 

O-gon

see Hikari Muji

 

o-ji-me

the last red patch on a Kohaku

 

o-mo-yo

single step, unbroken red pattern

 

O-ren-ji

"orange"; name used for an orange Ogon

 

o-zu-ke

see tail stop

 

Pearl Shu-su-i

Shusui where the Doitsu scales have a silver shine

 

Pu-ra             chi-na

white metallic koi also known as Platinum Ogon

 

rin

scale as in Gin Rin

 

Sa-da-zo         San-ke

one of the best bloodlines in Sanke with excellent red and small black markings

 

Sa-ku-ra         O-gon

metallic Konoko Kohaku

 

san

three

 

san-dan

3 step red pattern

 

San-ke

3 colored koi; white base color with red and shiny black pattern markings; may have stripes on fins

 

sa-ra-sa

some red on the back of koi; original name for Kohaku

 

sa-shi

front edge of red pattern where color goes under the scale; disappears with finished koi

 

se-bi-re

dorsal fin

 

se-sa-me

unorganized black pepper speckles on red or white

 

shi-mi

small black spot on less than 1 scale of a Kohaku; negative judging point

 

shi-ro

white as in Shiro Utsuri

 

Shi-ro           U-tsu-ri

Utsuri with white body

 

Sho-chi-ku-bai

metallic Ai-goromo

 

sho-ku

"colored" as in Taisho Sanshoku

 

Sho-wa

black base color with white stripes across body and red pattern markings; may have motogoro on pectoral fins and black fins

 

Sho-wa          San-sho-ku

see Showa; three colored Showa

 

Shu-su-i

Doitsu version of Asagi

 

So-ra-goi

non-metallic blue-gray koi

 

su-i

rippling blue water as in Shusui

 

su-mi

black

 

Su-mi       Go-ro-mo

Goromo with black netting

 

Su-mi-na-ga-shi

black scales outlined in white like an Asagi net pattern

 

Tai-sho          San-sho-ku

see Sanke; literally "Taisho era three colored koi"

 

Ta-ki             A-sa-gi

subgroup of Asagi with a white line at the lateral line separating the blue top from the orange below

 

Ta-ma          Gin        Rin

shiny spot in the center of each scale in rows

 

Tan-cho

Kohaku with only red spot on the head; named after similar patterned water bird in Japan; comes from Kohaku breeding

 

Tan-cho        San-ke

Sanke with only red mark on the head; shown in Tancho

 

Tan-cho        Sho-wa

Showa with only red mark on the head; shown in Tancho

 

ta-te-goi

koi with potential for excellent future development from good bloodline

 

te

pectoral fin

 

te-aka

red at base of pectoral fins of Kohaku; can be negative judging point unless balances pattern

 

te-ji-ma

black lines on pectoral fins of Sanke

 

Te-tsu            Ma-goi

iron colored black bloodline

 

to-bi           hi

small spots of red like paint splashes; not valued

 

To-ra          O-gon

"tiger"; metallic Ki Bekko

 

To-sai

this years baby koi

 

tsu-ba        gin        rin

see Tama Gin Rin

 

tsu-bo         zu-mi (sumi)

black markings on white base of Sanke; preferred in judging

 

tsu-ya

sheen of skin on a scaled koi

 

u-ra

"reversed"; as in colors reversed

 

ur-o-ko

scale

 

ur-u-shi       su-mi

best lacquer type black on Sanke; preferred

 

U-tsu-ri

black base color with white, red or yellow  pattern in stripes across body; black is wrapping below lateral line; often has moto goro

 

wa          goi

normal fully scaled Japanese koi

 

Ya-go-zen

a modern Kohaku bloodline

 

yam-a-bu-ki

yellow

 

Ya-ma-to          Ni-shi-ki

scaled metallic Sanke shown in Hikari Moyo; Doitsu version named Hesei Nishiki

 

yo-gyo-en

term used for a koi farm

 

yon-dan

4 step red pattern

 

yo-ro-i

see armored

 

Yot-su-shi-ro

"five whites"; black koi with all white head, pectoral fins, tail fin and caudal fins

 

Yu-ki

"a patch of snow" term used for unique koi with this appearance

 

za-ra-sa

see sarasa

 

zo-bon-ha-ki

"trousers"; when red on  Kohaku extends all of the way to the tail with no tail stop

 

zu-i-un

rare cross of Midorigoi and Shusui

 

zu-kin-ka-bur-i

red on the forehead

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7/26/2002                      by Douglas Dahl

ENGLISH TO JAPANESE

In Japanese, 'a' is like in father, 'i' is like in machine, 'e' is line in pet, 'u' is like 'oo' in hook

and 'o' is like in horse

Koi Term                                                                      (hyphenated to show pronunciation)                                             (bold shows pitch accent)

(Shorter, key word description than in Japanese to English section)

 

 

 

1 metallic color

Hi-ka-ri     Mu-ji       Mo-no

2 metallic colors; may also have black pattern

Hi-ka-ri     Mo-yo     Mo-no

2 step red pattern

ni-dan

3 colored koi; white base color with red and shiny black pattern markings; may have stripes on fins

San-ke

3 step red pattern

san-dan

4 step red pattern

yon-dan

5 step red pattern on Kohaku

go-dan

Ai Goromo with additional Sanke black spots

Ko-ro-mo         San-ke

Ai Goromo with additional Showa black pattern

Ko-ro-mo         Sho-wa

all other varieties of koi except those varieties listed in the show

Ka-wa-ri-mo-no

armored or large scales

yo-ro-i

Asagi bloodline with lighter color and dark blue scales rimmed in lighter blue

Na-ru-mi       A-sa-gi

Asagi bloodline with very dark blue

Ko-njo        A-sa-gi

Asagi with a white line at the lateral line separating the blue top from the orange below

Ta-ki             A-sa-gi

Asagi with lightest bloodline

Mi-zu         A-sa-gi

Baby koi born this year

To-sai

back edge of red or black color pattern

ki-wa

birthplace of koi in Japan

Ni-i-ga-ta

black

su-mi

black and white koi with ghost appearance; may have white scales with black center

Ma-tsu-ka-wa         ba-ke

black base color koi with white, red or yellow  pattern in stripes across body; black is wrapping below lateral line; often has moto goro

U-tsu-ri

black base color with white stripes across body and red pattern markings; may have motogoro on pectoral fins and black fins

Sho-wa

black koi with a gold sheen

Kin-bo

black koi with a silver sheen

Gin-bo

black koi with all white head, pectoral fins, tail fin and caudal fins

Yot-su-shi-ro

black koi with gold edges on each scale

Kin       Ka-bu-to

black koi with red cheeks ancestor of Kohaku

Hoo-ka-zu-ki

black koi with silver edges on each scale

Gin       Ka-bu-to

black koi with white or orange bellies

Ka-ra-su-goi

black koi with white tips on pectoral and caudal fins

Ha-ji-ro

black koi with white tips on pectoral and caudal fins and head and nose

Ha-ge-sh-ir-o

black lightening mark across the face of a Showa

men-wa-re

black lines on pectoral fins of Sanke

te-ji-ma

black lips or mouth

ku-chi         zu-mi

black markings on top of red pattern on Sanke

no-se        zu-mi (sumi)

black markings on white base of Sanke

tsu-bo         zu-mi (sumi)

black pattern at base of pectoral fins on Showa, Utsuri or Hikari Utsuri

mo-to         gu-ro

black pattern at base of pectoral fins on Showa, Utsuri or Hikari Utsuri

mo-to         zu-mi

black pattern on top of red pattern in Sanke

ka-san-e      zu-mi  (sumi)

black pepper speckles on red or white

se-sa-me

black on the gill plate

a-go     su-mi

black scales outlined in white like an Asagi net pattern

Su-mi-na-ga-shi

black spot on the head like that of a Tancho

ku-ro

black spots appearing as a koi grows larger

a-to     su-mi

blue

ai

blue gray koi with a brown pattern

O-chi-ba        Shi-gu-re

blurred or faded black

Bo-ke      Su-mi

bred, fancy carp in beautiful colors

koi

brown koi; may have light black netting; "tea"="o-cha"

Cha-goi

brushed reflective build up on top of scales in rows like brushed aluminum

Dai-ya

brushed reflective sparkle build up on top of scales in rows like brushed aluminum; diamond Gin Rin

Hi-ro-shi-ma     Gin      Rin

changeable red secondary pattern

ni-ba-ni       (niban hi)

checkerboard black pattern preferred on Showa

i-chi-ma-tsu        mo-yo

color

i-ro

colored

sho-ku

colors reversed

u-ra

common carp

Ma-goi

continuous red pattern from head to tail on Kohaku

ip-pon

cross of Sanke and Ogon

Ko-shi-ki

dappled cherry blossom red pattern

Ka-no-ko

deep body of Doitsu or German scale carp

I-shu-gru-del

deep wrapping red pattern on Kohaku

ma-ki-ga-fu-kai

Doitsu cross between Midorigoi and Shusui

En-yu

Doitsu Hariwake with cloud like red pattern on sides

Ki-ku-su-i

Doitsu koi with mirror scales on the dorsal and lateral lines on sides

ka-ga-mi-goi

Doitsu koi with only mirror scales on the dorsal line

Ka-wa-goi

Doitsu version of Asagi

Shu-su-i

Doitsu white and black killer whale pattern

Ku-mon-ryu

Doitsu with jumbled scales not in rows

a-ra-goi   or      a-ra-go-ke

Doitsu with jumbled scales not in rows

i-shi-ga-ki

Doitsu with large scale out of place

mu-da-go-ke

dorsal fin

se-bi-re

draining mud ponds to collect koi

i-ke     age

edge

Ka-do

eye

me

eye with red iris seen in Ki-goi

a-ka-mi

face

ka-o

figured or shaped

mo-nyo

fin

hi-re

first or best one

i-chi-ban

fish scale

go-ke

flowery patterned Shusui where the red extends down from the Doitsu scales below the lateral line; a white line separates the red at the lateral line

Ha-na      Shu-su-i

four white areas on a black koi

ho-tsu-ji-ro

front edge of red pattern where color goes under the scale

sa-shi

fully scaled Japanese koi

wa          goi

gill

era

gloss or shine on skin of Doitsu

te-di

gold and silver scales; shiny reflecting build up on top of scales in rows

Kin       Gin        Rin

gold metallic Shusui with greater number of red markings than Gin Sui

Kin      Su-i

gold metallic solid color koi with black pinecone pattern

Kin      Ma-tsu-ba

golden or silver sparkle scales

Gin       Rin

good bloodline in Sanke with excellent red and small black markings

Sa-da-zo         San-ke

Goromo with black netting

Su-mi       Go-ro-mo

Gosanke with Tancho on head in addition to other pattern

Ma-ru-ten

green colored koi

Mi-do-ri        goi

 

 

head

ha-chi

horseshoe pattern on head of Kohaku

ku-tsu-be-ra

improving the color using food

i-ro         age

iron colored black bloodline

Te-tsu            Ma-goi

kiwa at the edge of full scales to formed scalloped edge

ma-ru          zo-me

kiwa with straight line across a scale

ka-mi-so-ri

Kohaku bloodline

Di-an-i-chi

Kohaku or Sanke with silver speckles on the head when young

Fu-ji

Kohaku original name

sa-ra-sa

Kohaku original name

za-ra-sa

Kohaku red head pattern extends to the mouth

ha-na-tsu-ki

Kohaku sub variety with head pattern resembling Napoleons hat

Napoleon

Kohaku with dappled red pattern

go-ten      za-ku-ra

Kohaku with no red on the head (bald head)

bo-zu

Kohaku with only red spot on the head

Tan-cho

Kohaku with stepping stone pattern

Da-ga-ra

Kohaku with stepping stone pattern

dan-mo-yo

koi

goi

koi

Ni-shi-ki-goi

koi farm

yo-gyo-en

koi with "a patch of snow" on head

Yu-ki

koi with blue netting of scales on back and red on sides and belly

A-sa-gi

koi with no red pattern in the tail region

bon-gir-i

koi with no scales or with scales only on the lateral lines and dorsal

Doit-su

koi with the whole surface of the scale sparkles

Be-ta     Gin      Rin

lacquer type black on Sanke

ur-o-shi       su-mi

largest red spot

hi   ban

last red patch on a Kohaku

o-ji-me

light blue

a-ke-bi

lightning or zig zag red pattern on Gosanke

I-na-zu-ma

metallic Ai-goromo

Sho-chi-ku-bai

metallic Ki Bekko

To-ra          O-gon

metallic Kohaku with dappled red pattern

Kin-za-ku-ra

metallic koi with green lateral line scales on a platinum body

Ha-ku-shu

metallic koi with Showa and Utsuri patterns and bloodline

Hi-ka-ri     U-tsu-ri    Mo-no

metallic Konoko Kohaku

Sa-ku-ra         O-gon

metallic Kumonryu with additional red markings

Ki-ko-ku-ryu

metallic Sanke (scaled)

Ya-ma-to          Ni-shi-ki

metallic Sanke (Doitsu)

He-sei          Ni-shi-ki

metallic shine on skin

Hi-ka-ri

metallic Showa

Kin      Sho-wa

metallic Utsuri

Gin      Shi-ro      Ut-su-ri

metallic yellow base color koi with wrapping black pattern

Kin       Ki        U-tsu-ri

modern Kohaku bloodline

Ya-go-zen

Modern Showa with a lot of white pattern and less black and red

Kin-dai      Sho-wa

most revered varieties Kohaku, Sanke and Showa

Go-san-ke

mouth

ku-chi

mud black colored koi

doro-goi

mud pond to grow koi

Doro        i-ki

non-metallic blue-gray koi

So-ra-goi

number 1

i-chi

orange

O-ren-ji

pattern

mo-yo

pattern only on one side of the body

ka-ta        mo-yo

pectoral fin

te

pectoral fins of an Ai Goromo

Ha-go-ro-mo

pinkish white color

ha-tsu-hi

pond

i-ke

potential koi

ta-te-goi

purple color

mu-ra-ski

red

be-ni

red

hi

red as in red Bekko

a-ka

red at base of pectoral fins of Kohaku

te-aka

red disc on the head of a white koi as featured in the Japanese flag

hi-no-ma-ru

red gill plates ancestor of Kohaku

hoo          a-ka

red head or face pattern

ha-chi-bi

red head or face pattern

ka-bu-to

red head or face pattern

men-ka-bu-ri

red koi with white pectoral fin, caudal fin and tail fin tips

A-ka    Ha-ji-ro

red lipstick mark on mouth

ku-chi          be-ne

red on  Kohaku extends all of the way to the tail with no tail stop

zo-bon-ha-ki

red on the forehead

zu-kin-ka-bur-i

red on the stomach of Kohaku

ha-ra        hi

red pattern at the base of pectoral fin in Gosanke

mo-to         a-ka

red pattern covered below lateral line

ma-ki-ko-mi

red pattern from had to tail on Showa

Hi        jo-wa

red pattern wrapping around the stomach

ma-ki-ba-ra

red, yellow or white koi with pine cone pattern in black

Ma-tsu-ba

rippling blue water

su-i

round

ma-ru

sagging abdomen or stomach

ha-ra-shi-ta

Sanke bloodline known for large size

Ma-tsu-no-su-ke

Sanke with metallic pectoral fins

bun-ka

Sanke with only red mark on the head

Tan-cho        San-ke

Sanke with top of body completely red with black spots

A-ka    San-ke

scale

ur-o-ko

scale as in Gin Rin

rin

shadow or phantom black

Ka-ge

sheen of skin on a scaled koi

tsu-ya

shiny spot in the center of each scale in rows

Ni-I-ga-ta        Gin         Rin

shiny spot in the center of each scale in rows

Ta-ma          Gin        Rin

shiny spot in the center of each scale in rows

tsu-ba        gin        rin

shoulder sumi mark preferred on  Showa

ka-ta        zu-mi  (sumi)

Showa with Asagi netting pattern on the back

Ka-ge       Sho-wa

Showa with only red mark on the head

Tan-cho        Sho-wa

Showa with unfinished black pattern that appears as grey netting

Bo-ke      Sho-wa

Shusui where the Doitsu scales have a silver shine

Pearl Shu-su-i

Shusui with green replacing the blue

zu-i-un

Shusui with red wrapping from the belly all the way up to the dorsal

Hi        Shu-su-i

Shusui with yellow replacing the red pattern

Ki      Shu-su-i

silver gray metallic koi

Ne-zu          O-gon

silver metallic koi with black pinecone pattern

Gin       Ma-tsu-ba

silver metallic Shusui

Gin      Su-i

single color metallic koi

O-gon

single step, unbroken red pattern

Nip-pon            Hi

single step, unbroken red pattern

o-mo-yo

single white scale in color spot

ko-ke-su-ki

size

BU

skin

ha-da

skin texture

ji-ha-da

small black spot on less than 1 scale of a Kohaku

shi-mi

small red pattern on Kohaku

ko       mo-yo

small spots of red like paint splashes

to-bi           hi

solid color koi with black in the center of Doitsu scales

Doit-su      mat-su-ba

solid red koi

A-ka    Mu-ji

star like shape of red pigment stretched as koi grows which fills in to solid red later

ho-shi

stomach tumor

cho-man

tail fin

o-bi-re

tail stop

o-do-me

tail stop

o-zu-ke

thick luster around scales

fu-ku-rin

thin red color

ko-be-su-ki

three

san

three colored koi" from Taisho era

Tai-sho          San-sho-ku

two

ni

two metallic color koi with black netting

Ku-ja-ku

two metallic color koi with gold and silver patterns and no black; sometimes has its own class

Ha-ri-wa-ke

unstable, flat black color pattern

na-be         su-mi

Utsuri with red body

Hi        U-tsu-ri

Utsuri with white body

Shi-ro           U-tsu-ri

Utsuri with yellow body

Ki      U-tsu-ri

V shaped black mark behind the head on a Showa

ha-chi-wa-re

very deep red koi

Be-ni     goi

water

mi-zu

white

shi-ro

white base color koi with red pattern covered with blue/purple netting like a cluster of grapes

Bu-do      San-ke

white base color koi with 5 colors with red pattern and blue, dark blue and black net pattern on red and white

Go-shi-ki

white base color koi with red and wrapping black markings

Sho-wa          San-sho-ku

white base color koi with red pattern and blue or black netting only on the red pattern

Go-ro-mo

white base color koi with red pattern and blue or black netting only on the red pattern

Ko-ro-mo

white base color koi with red pattern covered with blue netting

Ai     Go-ro-mo

white base color with shiny black spot pattern

Be-kko

white metallic koi

Pu-ra             chi-na

yellow

ki

yellow

yam-a-bu-ki